Degenerative and dystrophic changes in the tissues of the vertebrae and discs, and the clinical symptoms associated with these processes, are termed osteonecrosis. Review of the main causes and treatments for thoracic spondylosis.
Causes of osteonecrosis of the thoracic spine
Damaged or mutated genes for normal bone growth are inherited. Therefore, the risk of osteonecrosis is significantly increased if a spouse has this disease.
- Sedentary lifestyle.
In this case, it is very important for the spine to bear too much load and stretch, leading to compression of the vertebrae and the development of disease. This happens more often with people working on computers and with drivers.
- Vascular disease.
Any disease of the vessels that supply blood to the spine and cause an insufficient supply of nutrients to the tissues of the vertebrae leads to the appearance of degenerative and dystrophic changes in them.
- Metabolic disorders in the body.
Often, diabetes mellitus leads to the appearance of changes in the vessels that violate the nutritional properties of tissues. In addition, direct changes in the tissues of the vertebrae can occur with a violation of phosphorus-calcium metabolism, with pathologies of the thyroid and parathyroid glands, with diseases of the adrenal cortex.
- Infection and poisoning.
Inflammatory processes in the tissues of the vertebrae and discs, caused by the invasion of viruses, bacteria or the action of their toxins, can also lead to the development of osteonecrosis.
The presence of a constant excessive load on the spine leads to compression of the intervertebral discs with the subsequent development of the underlying processes of osteonecrosis.
- Inappropriate nutrition.
Deficiency of trace elements (for example, calcium), vitamin deficiency (D3) can also lead to disorders of metabolic processes in the body and pathogenesis of bone and cartilage tissue.
- Age-related changes in bone and cartilage tissue.
With age, dystrophic changes occur in the thoracic spine, leading to compression of the discs. As we age, the musculature of the spine also weakens.
- Thoracic spine injury.
Bruises and fractures of the vertebral arch from a fall or car accident are not uncommon. At the same time, anatomical changes in the vertebrae and surrounding tissues are a direct cause of the development of a pathological process that causes osteonecrosis.
Pathology "school" develops in children of educational institutions that do not use health protection technologies, mainly falling on the thoracic spine. The curvature of the spine significantly changes the load on individual segments of the spine, causing the development of osteonecrosis.
- Sports and occupational hazards.
Sports loads (eg, weightlifters), as well as work involving weight lifting, frequent changes in trunk position (rotation, flexion and extension, jerky movements) can alsocause persistent pathological changes in the spine. In addition, prolonged exposure to uncomfortable positions such as standing, sitting, lying down, when lifting and carrying weights, while doing other work in which pressure on the discs and loads on the entire spine increases. , which can lead to osteonecrosis.
- Other causative factors and risk of developing osteonecrosis of the thoracic spine.
Overload of the spine associated with foot diseases, as well as from wearing uncomfortable shoes, high heels and pregnancy in women, the sudden and eventual cessation of regular training by professional athletes- Excessive stress and stressful situations.
Symptoms of osteonecrosis of the thoracic spine
All symptoms of the disease can be divided into reflex and compression.
The mechanism of their appearance is the stimulation of the receptors of the intervertebral disc ligament, the intervertebral disc capsule, and the intervertebral disc receptors. Irradiation (propagation) of stimulation to adjacent segments of the spinal cord can lead to different symptoms.
Here are the main causes: pain in the chest, pain in the abdomen or in the heart area, muscle tension in the chest, autonomic symptoms from internal organs. The pain is always acute, described by the patient as a dagger blow. The place where the pain syndrome occurs is the area between the shoulder blades, the pain can be in the heart, sternum.
The patient may have difficulty moving, even breathing deeply. Reflective symptoms in thoracic spondylolisthesis are much more common than compression.
Compression symptoms of osteonecrosis of the thoracic spine are caused by the nerve root being compressed or stretched in the area of its exit from the intervertebral discs. The main causes are: symmetrical muscle weakness in both legs, loss of sensitivity in the legs, "penetrating" pain in the back and chest. The "shooting" pain, felt inside the chest, in the abdomen, increases with movement, bending, coughing, sneezing, laughing. There is a feeling of "goosebumps", numbness, tingling. During the development of the pathology, movement disorders and muscle atrophy may appear. Increased muscle tone, decreased sensitivity in the lower extremities, urinary disturbances may occur.
Other vegetative symptoms of osteonecrosis of the thoracic spine
The vegetative symptoms in osteonecrosis appear because the composition of nerve fibers originating from the thoracic spine contains vegetative substances, and stimulation or invasion of these fibers may be accompanied by actual symptoms. object. The main causes are: peeling and dryness of the skin in the inner region of the pinched nerve, local disturbances in sweat secretion and thermoregulation (also in the inner region), brittle nails, pain simulating the pathology ofgastrointestinal tract (gastritis, peptic ulcer, cholecystitis), low back pain, heart pain.
Treatment of osteonecrosis of the thoracic spine
Treatment of osteonecrosis of the right thoracic spine is complex (a combination of pharmacological and non-pharmacological methods), individual and systemic.
Drugs for the treatment of osteonecrosis of the thoracic spine
The main task of these methods is to eliminate pain syndrome, muscle tension, improve microcirculation and tissue nutrition. For this, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are used, which reduce the inflammatory process, eliminate pain and muscle tension. These funds are regulated for an average of 7-14 days. Locally regulated anesthetic applications. In case of insufficient effect of non-steroidal analgesics, analgesic mixtures are used. The mixture is injected intravenously in saline or glucose. Vertebral blockade provides rapid pain relief when analgesics are injected into the soft tissues of the vertebral region.
To relieve pain in osteonecrosis of the thoracic spine, irritating and distracting ointments are used topically.
Muscle tension is relieved by medications such as muscle relaxants.
To normalize blood circulation and improve tissue nutrition, antiplatelet drugs and nicotinic acid are used.
They also use drugs that improve metabolism in discs and joints - chondroprotectors.
Diet for degenerative thoracic spine disease. Completely excluded from the diet: salt, hot spices, preparations with the use of vinegar and salt, semi-finished products, sugar (can be replaced with honey), coffee and carbonated drinks. Allowed: legumes, eggplant, cheese, dairy products, lettuce, cabbage, cheese, bananas, liver, carrots, melons, seafood, grains, fresh vegetables and fruits, herbswood, seeds and berries.
The complex of treatment program for thoracic spondylosis includes: manual therapy, classical massage, acupressure, reflex fractional massage, physiotherapeutic exercises, twisting techniques (stretching), acupuncture, swimming, physical therapy methods (electrophoresis, ultrasound, amplipulse, dynamic current diode, mud therapy, etc. ).
Traditional methods of treating osteochondrosis of the thoracic spine
Exacerbation of degenerative disease of the thoracic spine is indicated for treatment under the close supervision of a doctor. Never blindly use home and folk remedies without your doctor's permission. As an additional treatment to alleviate the patient's condition, the following can be used:
- Alcohol and decoction.
- Lingonberry leaf tincture. Take 1 tablespoon of reishi leaves, pour boiling water into about 0. 25 liters and incubate for 2 hours. Drink half a glass in the morning and evening for 3 weeks.
- Parsley root decoction. Grind 50 g of parsley root, add 0. 5 liters of water and simmer for an hour and a half. Consume 1 tablespoon morning and evening for 3 weeks.
- Nettle tincture and honey. Squeeze the juice from the freshly picked nettle, mix it with honey and rubbing alcohol into two equal parts. Keep in a cold place for 14 days and take one tablespoon in the morning on an empty stomach for 2 weeks.
- Yarrow tincture with mint, licorice and calendula. Mix 1 tablespoon of yarrow and 2 tablespoons of mint, licorice and calendula each and then pour 1 liter of boiling water in, let it steep for 7-8 hours. Drink 3 times a day, 50 ml each time, for 3 weeks.
- Radish and honey soaked in vodka. Grate the beets, mix with honey in equal parts and add 50 ml of vodka. Use this preparation to rub on the painful area.
- Lard and hops. Mix one tablespoon of melted and cooled lard at room temperature with the same amount of hops. Rub the resulting composition into the affected area.
- Lard and propolis. Melt 150g lard, add 30g propolis and mix well. It is best to rub your skin overnight. After the procedure, you should wrap your back with a warm towel.
- Ginger and Garlic. Fry the minced ginger and garlic with butter until a homogeneous mixture is obtained. Rub the painful area with the resulting composition.
- Oregano with oil. Mix 1 tablespoon of oregano leaves and 0. 2 liters of olive oil. Leave the mixture for 10 hours, then stretch, massage into the painful areas of the back.
Prognosis for osteonecrosis of the thoracic spine
The prognosis is generally favorable, complications in this form of the disease are rare. It is worth noting the timely diagnosis of the disease, to exclude other pathologies of the thoracic organs, as well as adequate treatment and sufficient prevention of exacerbations of osteonecrosis.