Throughout his life, a person is always in motion. As a result, it is possible to quickly and efficiently adapt to changes in the environment, learn about the world, move around, and perform daily activities. However, any movement of the body places a certain load on the musculoskeletal system, potentially becoming traumatic, thus causing premature wear of the joint. This is how osteoarthritis happens - one of the most common diseases on the planet. Despite its widespread prevalence, not everyone knows its main manifestations and levels of danger, which is why they seek medical help at a later stage. This can lead to serious health problems, even disability. Timely examination with specialists will help you avoid these troubles, because experienced doctors will make a thorough diagnosis that will allow you to identify pathological changes in the early stages. .
Arthritis is a degenerative-dystrophic joint disease with retarded growth of cartilage structure and growth of bone tissue. As a result of these pathological changes, the affected joint becomes deformed, reduced mobility, and severe pain syndrome appears. According to official statistics, in the world 10 to 20% of people suffer from this pathology. These are pretty important indicators that are growing every year. During the aging process, the musculoskeletal system undergoes age-related changes, which are characteristic of most people over the age of 80. However, only a small proportion go to the doctor and prefer to self-medicate. It is this approach that significantly worsens the prognosis for recovery, while increasing the likelihood of disability.
This disease occurs almost equally in both men and women.The risk group is represented by:
- Women over 50 and men over 40.
- People with a history of endocrine disorders, chronic arthritis.
- People whose occupations involve heavy manual labor or sit motionless for long periods of time.
- Professional athletes (especially weightlifters and those participating in traumatized sports).
Have someclassifydry joints: depending on origin, clinical form and site. Each of them has its own clinical significance; The classification according to the location of the lesion is the greatest need in practice.
Dry joints of the lower extremities
- hip arthritis- the most dangerous and difficult to flow species. Due to the anatomical features of the structure of this joint, there is a rapid development of degenerative-dystrophic disorders with damage to the musculoskeletal apparatus. When inflammation comes together, the consequences of complete or partial immobilization develop. Most often this pathology occurs due to the presence of congenital dysplasia, dislocation and bone disease. Manifested in the form of pain (at first appearing in the afternoon and night, but later often, spreading to the groin and buttocks) and the location of compression of the lower extremities.
- Fish's eyes- occurs quite often, because the ankle is forced to bear a heavy load every day. As a result, he suffered frequent injuries, which led to degeneration. Ankle arthritis often occurs without obvious symptoms, but as it progresses, soreness develops with physical activity. The pain then becomes constant, stiffening of movements, and complete immobility (rarely without prompt and adequate treatment).
- Knee jointThe most popular variety. It is the knee that bears the most load, so it is more prone to injury than others. There are several types: patellofemoral and tibiofemoral. The first occurred after trauma to the pelvic joint. In the early stages, it has no symptoms, because the joint has a large amount of cartilage responsible for shock absorption. Their presence prevents bone injuries. After that, the patient begins to feel pain in the knee after physical activities, which will gradually become persistent (usually worse when the weather changes). Often bursitis is involved in the pathology, which is characterized by strong, almost unbearable pain. The tibiofemoral type is diagnosed extremely rarely and has a more favorable prognosis. Pain varies, spreading to the lower body (usually to the feet).
- Heel- Degenerative-dystrophic changes may be observed in the subarticular or pelvic joint areas following injury or disease. It also does not manifest clinically for a long time, but over time begins to appear painful.
Arthritis of the upper extremities
Aslocalization of the diseaseoccurs less frequently in the lower extremities. It:
- Shoulder.As a rule, it occurs after trauma and against the background of minor injuries in professional athletes. It is sometimes diagnosed in people whose occupations involve physically difficult work. This type of pathology is the result of trauma and inflammation. Initially, it progressed inconspicuously, but as it progressed, painful sensations appeared in the injured shoulder area. Patients note limited mobility, as well as a crunching sound when moving. In the absence of prompt treatment, partial foot arthritis can occur.
- Elbow - is diagnosed much less often.In most cases, this diagnosis is diagnosed in certain professions: miners, blacksmiths and people who work with vibrating tools. Symptoms include pain in the elbow during flexion and extension of the upper extremities and limited mobility.
- Hand arthritis.As a rule, it is diagnosed in the wrist joint of the first finger (it is he who is most susceptible to injuries in everyday life). It is characterized by a dull ache on the outer surface of the palm, which may radiate to the thumb.
- Finger arthritis.Usually seen in people doing small jobs (embroidery, knitting, etc. ). There is an overgrowth of bone tissue, leading to the formation of Heberden and Bouchard nodules. Patients rarely experience joint pain (sometimes with changes in weather) and stiffness with movement.
There is no single etiological factor that leads to the development of this pathology. Osteoarthritis is a disease that begins to manifest itself slowly against the background of congenital structural features of the connective tissue, past diseases, as well as a long reception of microtraumas. The vast majority of chronic inflammatory diseases (arthritis), in one way or another, are transformed into a degenerative-dystrophic process with recurrent episodes of inflammation. Particular attention should be paid to the age group with arthropathy, the age group that accounts for the largest number of these diagnosed patients.
Despite the fact that there is no single origin of this disease, there are several factors that lead to it.The greatest clinical significance among them are:
- Sedentary lifestyle(sedentary work, laziness and more).
- Excessive physical activity,hard physical labor, professional sports (sports injuries negatively affect health in all industries).
- Large body mass(the calves cannot cope with such weight).
- Varicose veins.
- Career relatedErect, without any movement.
- Hormonal disorders and damage to organs of the endocrine system(diabetes, atherosclerosis, obesity, etc. ).
- Improper nutrition(not eating enough fat, protein, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals daily).
- Smoking and alcohol abuse.
- Reduced heritability.
Due to the influence of one or more of the above factors, the cartilage tissue covering the surface of the joints begins to gradually break down. At first, it becomes thinner, less elastic, then it cracks completely. The subchondral bone tissue is in contact with the surface of the bone, therefore, under the action of friction, they are destroyed. The protective response of bone tissue becomes its growth (especially along the joint edges), which significantly limits joint mobility and leads to joint deformity.
Joint cells have a peculiarity - they react quickly to any wound, even a small one. Injured cells actively synthesize anti-inflammatory cytokines, so that cartilage and bone destruction is characterized by aseptic inflammation in the synovium. Frequent relapsing pathology leads to more severe inflammation, as a result, the cells of the hard tissues begin to die more severely, contributing to the progression of the disease.
Arthritis can progress for a long time without the slightest clinical signs. Patients live without a doubt that degenerative-dystrophic changes are taking place in their joints. As a rule, the first symptoms occur at the peak of the pathology or after the addition of inflammation. Symptoms are of many types, depending on the time of onset and the nature of presentation.
A person begins to experience pain in the affected joint area after physical activity (playing sports, jogging, walking without stopping, climbing stairs, etc. ). In the morning, after a long stay in an immobile state, the first "pain begins", combined with a slight stiffness.To remove limited mobilityyou need to reheat for a certain time. The pain is aching or dull, not too intense. Due to the lack of clinical picture, patients rarely go to the doctor in the early stages. Many people start self-medicating, experimenting with different treatment techniques that can only aggravate the existing situation. However, in the early stages, this disease has the best prognosis and a high chance of complete recovery without any consequences. Therefore, you should make an appointment with your doctor if you notice any sensation in your joints.
Increasing pain sensation, amplified by weather changes. They not only arise in the morning but also last throughout the day. Patients can not sleep completely, many people (especially in old age) report bone pain, muscle aches. The pain will spread to the entire limb, radiating to the surrounding areas. People with this problem quickly tire of walking even for short distances, subject to complex joint flexion and stiffness formation. Many people note instability of the injured limb, which is why they form an uncertain and light gait.
Osteoarthritis of the knee is manifested by a characteristic creaking sound, which is caused by the friction of the articulating surfaces. The knee gradually begins to deform due to the growth of bony tissue along the edges. The patient tries to limit any movement, which leads to the appearance of muscle atrophy. This makes the gait even more unstable and cautious. Osteoarthritis of the upper extremities is often the result of trauma or chronic arthritis. The most noticeable deformity was observed in the interphalangeal joints of the hand. Bouchard and Heberden notes form on the fingers, and the hand becomes square.
Due to the fact thatdegenerative-dystrophic changedevelops gradually and for a long time, the appearance of even dangerous clinical signs can go unnoticed. This aggravates the current situation and worsens the prognosis for recovery.These symptoms are:
- Persistent swelling and pain in the limbs- indicates active inflammation requiring urgent medical attention.
- Joint deformity, as a result of which gait changes or the inability to perform normal movements.
- Muscle pain and bone pain.
- Unstable gait, serious limitation of mobility when bending and stretching.
- Pain syndrome becomes permanentwithout fading into the evening or night, radiating to the surrounding areas.
In orthopedic practice, it is common to distinguish the clinical and radiographic grade of joint disease according to the Kellgren-Lawrence classification:
- Zero.The person feels no pain or discomfort while walking (even for long distances). On radiographs, no pathological changes were detected.
- Initially (unclear).With prolonged walking, moderate pain of a dull nature will appear. Some patients report a slight crunching sound when flexing the limb. X-ray examination reveals the first signs of pathology: narrowing of the joint space and small areas of bone defect along the margin.
- - Light-weight.The pain syndrome becomes more pronounced, appearing in the morning accompanied by stiffness. The pain increases with movement. The X-ray showed clearly narrowed joint space and a small amount of bone growth (osteogenesis).
- Moderate (degenerate).Pain is felt not only in the morning, but also at night. Muscle pain and soreness in the bones. The patient did not sleep well, often noted swelling of the damaged joint. X-rays show progression of joint space narrowing and growth of osteoblasts, as well as an increase in bone density.
- Heavy (deformed).Pain syndrome becomes permanent, not always with anesthetic can be stopped. The pain increases with movement, a strong crunch is heard when bending. Muscle atrophy is also involved, joint deformities develop. X-rays show that the joint cavity is sharply narrowed, the edges of the joint surface are significantly increased, causing deformities.
All degenerative diseases are characterized by slow progression, often with no symptoms (especially in the early stages). An increase in pain is noted when weather conditions change (wet, wind or temperature drops) and at the onset of the inflammatory process. Inflammation is characterized by swelling, skin flushing, pain, and swelling. Therefore, if signs of an inflammatory process appear, you must immediately seek professional medical help. Independent supplyfirst aidUse the following methods:
- Take any pain relievers.
- Apply numbing ointment or gel to the skin.
- Make sure the extremities are immobilized (until the pain goes away).
For diagnosis, highly accurate examination methods are used to detect even small pathological changes. At the clinic, the specialist will conduct a thorough examination of the patient, with the naked eye and palpation to determine the current condition of the joints (external signs of inflammation: swelling, redness, etc. )skin, pain, congestion). Then, laboratory and instrumental diagnoses are indicated, allowing you to get a complete picture of the extent of the lesion. Laboratory studies include:
- General blood, biochemical and immunological tests.Changes in the blood can confirm the presence of inflammation, as well as establish the cause of the development of the disease (metabolic disorders, autoimmune reactions, etc. ).
- C-reactive proteins.
- Intra-articular fluid collectionto detect infection and its susceptibility to antibiotics.
Diagnostic tools include the following procedures:
- Joint ultrasound and MRI.It makes it possible to find changes in the soft and periarticular tissues.
- X-ray and CT scan.Differences in information content when looking for changes in bone tissues. Today it is the preferred diagnostic method, which is the basis for diagnosing joint diseases.
- Arthroscopy.It is done when there is evidence of inflammation.
- X-ray.It involves the introduction of radiopharmaceuticals to assess the condition of the bones and their metabolism.
Prescribing medication is aimed at relieving the pain syndrome, stopping the progression of the syndrome, and restoring joint function.To combat pain, the following are used:
- Pain relievers belong to the NSAID group.The type of drug, release form, and dosage are selected by the doctor on an individual basis. The choice depends on the severity of the pain, age, gender, and other factors. The most commonly prescribed drugs are pain relievers, as a rule, they are taken orally in the form of tablets, but injections or ointments can be used.
- Muscle relaxants.They are needed to relieve spasms from peristaltic muscles. In this way, it can also relieve pain and restore normal blood circulation in the joints.
- The B vitamins stimulate nerves.This is the sociable component of basic therapy. B vitamins contribute to the normalization of the peripheral nervous system and also inhibit pain.
- Blockade pain relief.As a rule, they are used for pronounced acute pain, which cannot be eliminated by taking the drugs described above. In this case, the solution is used to inject into the most painful places.
Joint treatmentThe knee or any other joint will not be complete without medication to help restore joint function. For this purpose, the following are specified:
- Chondroprotectors.Their reception restores cartilage tissue, improves blood circulation in it. It is given as an ointment, injection, and pill.
- Hyaluronic Acid.The drug is injected directly into the joint cavity, providing the fastest possible therapeutic effect. Its main purpose is to improve the viscosity of synovial fluid and prevent injury to the articular surface of the bones.
It is important to understand thatuse medicine- this is not a panacea and not the only way to recovery. To eliminate pain, increase joint mobility, and improve your quality of life, you'll need to devote an adequate amount of time to non-drug treatments. It is necessary to maintain a balance between adequate physical activity and good rest. You can achieve this result with consistent daily practice. To get the desired results, you must adhere to the following training rules:
- Classes must be held every day, regardless of health, mood, weather, living circumstances and other factors.
- All movements are performed extremely smoothly and slowly.
- If during practice, pain sensations increase, then classes will stop.
Regardless of the degree of knee osteoarthritis, the patient also needsgive up running(especially at short distances at high speed), jumping, outdoor games (football, basketball, volleyball, etc. ), lifting weights (barbells, etc. ), prolonged immobilization. The best options in this case are swimming, yoga (preferably with an instructor who will know about joint problems), and Pilates.
With paresis, physiotherapy is indicated. It helps to improve health and fight possible complications of the disease.Physical therapy treatments include:
- Electrophoresis or electrophoresis with analgesic solutions.
- Warming of paraffin applications(done exclusively in the absence of an inflammatory process).
- Darsonvalidization- exposure to high and low frequency currents to stimulate blood circulation and relax muscles.
- Magneto and laser therapy.
- Electrical stimulation. . . It is an effective method of physical therapy aimed at restoring muscle mass and strength.
It is also allowed to perform hirudotherapy - treatment with leeches. The saliva of these animals contains a large number of enzymes that dilate blood vessels and normalize metabolism. In addition, it also helps to dissolve necrotic tissues and clean the joint cavities.
It is quite difficult to deal with dry joints, as well as its consequences. However, it is much easier to prevent it. To do this, it is enough to follow simple recommendations that will help preserve healthy joints for many years.Among them:
- Active lifestyle.Even if your career activity involves staying in a sitting or immobile position for a long time, it's important to make time (at least a few minutes a day) for a simple warm-up.
- Exercise regularly or swim in the pool. . . These are great general health promoting sports that will help keep your muscles and musculoskeletal system healthy.
- Proper and balanced nutrition.It is imperative to monitor your daily diet. It must include a sufficient amount of protein, fat, carbohydrates, trace elements and vitamins. It is necessary to increase consumption of foods rich in omega-3 (fish, red fish, avocado, walnuts, flaxseed, etc. ) and collagen (jelly meat, rich soups, etc. ).
- Monitor body weight.It is necessary to keep the weight within normal limits, to prevent obesity from developing (for that you also need to play sports and eat in moderation).
- Wear comfortable shoes.
- Giving up sports,with a high risk of injury.
ArthritisThis is a rather serious illness that can lead to serious consequences and complications. However, you can fight it, live it to the fullest, and do your day job. Modern medicine offers a variety of treatment techniques aimed at improving the patient's condition and restoring their motor functions. However, it's important to remember that quality of life in patients with arthritis depends on the duration of treatment and the implementation of medical recommendations. Early medical advice allows you to identify the first degenerative changes and eliminate them in time. Therefore, you do not need to self-medicate or delay the trip to the doctor. If the first symptoms of joint disorders are detected, you must immediately visit a doctor and get a thorough diagnosis.