Hip pain: causes and treatment

hip pain

If you feel pain in your hip joint, you need to determine the cause. Treatment of pain depends on the pathology of which it is a symptom. Complex measures and strict observance of the recommendations will help to cure the disease and maintain the motor activity of the joints. Hip joint disorder makes you unable to actively move. Functional impairment limits the patient's ability to move and function independently.

hip pain figure 1

Anatomical features

A large joint connects the femur and pelvis and allows movements in three directions: flexion and extension, retraction, and rotation of the lower limb. Degenerative degeneration leads to deformities that limit movement and cause pain.

The hip is supplied with blood from the femoral main arteries located in the joint area. Diseases can disrupt blood vessel capacity leading to oxygen starvation and nutritional deficiencies.

The large nerve trunks of the sciatic nerve, the lumbar nerve, and the femoral nerve provide internal mobility. The compression or compression of nerve endings is caused by severe nerve pain in the pelvic region.

Causes of hip pain

The development of diseases of various causes in the hip region leads to serious health problems, including disability. The onset of pain in the hip joint accompanies each disease at different stages of development.

The cause of the pain determines its nature and intensity. Acute pain that occurs with trauma, inflammatory processes, purulent discharge, non-intense aching sensations is a chronic disease.

Many diseases of unknown origin and birth defects lead to the appearance of a symptom. The syndrome is present initially, or may arise as a result of the progression of a medical condition.

hip pain figure 2

Cause disease

  • Injuries of varying severity are among the most common causes. Bruises, sprains, and fractures cause mechanical damage to bones and ligaments. On the first day after the injury, there was a sharp pain in the hip joint. Then the pain weakens, has a muffled character. Frequent trauma: pelvic fracture, hip dislocation, hip fracture. All of these injuries occur after a severe direct trauma from a fall or impact. The situation is complicated if a person has a history of osteoporosis or degenerative changes in the cartilage and bone tissue of the joints.
  • Sprain myositis is characterized by inflammation in the connective tissues of the joint capsule. Occurs after trauma or when inherited from parents. The progressive process leads to a morphological change of cartilage tissue, which over time degenerates into bone.
  • Dislocations of the hip, whether acquired at birth or developed in the womb, lead to deformities, limited range of motion and pinched nerves. With this pathology, not only somatic, but also neuralgias in the hip joint occur.
  • Coxarthrosis is a common disease in older people who lead a sedentary lifestyle or do heavy physical work. Dystrophic changes in cartilage and subsequent deformity of bone cause pain sensation. The first symptoms appear due to overexertion. The process of running is accompanied by a constant dull ache that does not go away with prolonged rest or sleep. Consolidation syndrome continues in tandem with progressive changes in the hip.
  • Arthritis - inflammation in the joint capsule accompanied by severe sharp pain. It is both an independent disease and a complication after an injury or infectious disease occurs.
  • Reiter's syndrome is a reactive allergic lesion that usually occurs after infection with infectious diseases. There are cases where the condition develops after the penetration of chlamydia or gonorrhea into the joint capsule. The pathology is accompanied by acute pain in the hip joint and tissue edema.
  • Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic disease of the immune system in which its own cells recognize healthy tissue as a foreign organism and attempt to destroy it. This condition leads to a change in the joint tissues against the background of severe inflammatory processes.
  • Ankylosing spondylitis is a systemic chronic joint disease. Localization of the process in the pelvis is accompanied by pain in the pelvis, which develops mainly at night. The patient's pain sensation increases in the morning, the limitation disappears after active exercise or sports.
  • Osteoarthritis, another name for Koenig's disease, develops in the cartilage that comes in contact with the femur. Cartilage begins to slough off with further separation of a small area. The condition is often complicated by the addition of bursitis. The patient complains of pain in the hip joint, the final stage occurs with complete obstruction due to the presence of necrotic cartilage tissue in the joint cavity.
  • Legg-Calvet-Perthess disease is a type of musculoskeletal disease that develops when blood circulation and nutrition in the hip joint are impaired. It is characterized by gradual necrosis of the femoral head, accompanied by painful sensations, and impaired gait due to shortening of the limb. This disease is considered a pediatric disease, because children of preschool and primary school age are more susceptible to the disease.
  • Bursitis is an inflammation of the bursa that is then filled with disease-causing fluid. The disease occurs in clusters located near the hip joint, causing pain mainly on exertion or palpation.
  • Bursitis is an inflammatory lesion of the synovial membrane lining the joint capsule. In the acute stage there is constant severe pain in the hip joint, in the chronic stage the symptoms are relieved.
  • Sympathetic inflammation - changes in the tissues of the pubic bone sympathize with pubic divergence. Occurs during childbirth and childbirth. The pathology is inflammatory in nature, accompanied by severe pain in the pubic region, spreading to the hip joint.
  • Pelvic root syndrome is neuropathic pain. The syndrome occurs due to compression by bony growths and deformed tissues of the great nerves located at the junction of the femur and pelvis.
  • Varus' deformity, clubfoot, can be a birth defect or an acquired disease. Incorrectly distributed load on the foot, due to the inward displacement of the forefoot, negatively affects the hip and knee joints. Over time, with improper movements or not treated in time, the hip joint is deformed, causing pain.
  • Joint diseases - degenerative-dystrophic processes in the ligamentous apparatus of the joints. These processes are often accompanied by inflammation. The painful condition leads to structural weakening of ligaments and tendons and possible rupture of connective tissue. In addition, certain areas are observed, reducing the function of the joints.
  • Episodic rheumatism is a chronic joint disease in which there is an increase in synovial fluid synthesis, accompanied by an increase in joint volume and a decrease in motor activity on the basis of pain.
  • Synovitis is the degeneration of areas of the synovial membrane of a joint into cartilage formation. Neonatal blocks can reach the size of a matchbox. Accompanied by severe pain when moving, decreasing in amplitude until the hip joint is exhausted.
  • Juvenile crest is a pathological condition in which the femoral head is displaced downward and posteriorly. Boys get the disease during puberty, when a failure occurs due to an imbalance in the synthesis of sex hormones and growth hormones. Pain in the hip occurs when trying to move the leg.
  • Aseptic necrosis of the femoral head can develop due to acute lack of circulation in the hip joint. Against the background of bone tissue death, severe pain turns into a burning sensation, drastically limiting the mobility of the affected leg. Attacks last for several days and pass before the onset of the next acute phase.
  • There are known cases of gout in the hip joint. Uric acid formed too much without being eliminated enough will crystallize and deposit in the joint cavity, gradually filling up. During a gout attack, the pain appears unbearable.
  • Malignant tumors in bone or surrounding tissues.


Hip pain is divided into 3 levels:

  1. mild - accompanied by minor trauma and consequences after bearing a large load on the muscles of the thighs and buttocks;
  2. moderate - occurs with pathologies of a dystrophic, inflammatory and infectious nature, which can be of a local nature or of the lower extremities or pubic bone;
  3. strong - present with fractures, severe dislocations, with severe limitation of motion in the joints, and sometimes paralysis.

Rashes that progress at night and pass during the day appear in pathologies with vascular obstruction. The lack of circulation can cause numbness, tingling, and "snoring" sensations.

Many diseases occur with inflammation in the joint capsule, ligaments, or surrounding tissues.

In this case, the appearance of characteristic symptoms is noted:

  • swelling around the hip joint appears due to a violation of the outflow of excess fluid, while the skin is tight and shiny;
  • change in color of the skin at the site of pain: from moderately red to bluish;
  • a local increase in temperature on the joint area is due to a reaction to acute inflammation;
  • a severe episode that causes general intoxication of the body, accompanied by headache, joint pain, and fever.

Method of diagnosis of hip joint

For a detailed examination, several studies are carried out, with the help of which it is possible to draw a complete picture of the disease that has arisen:

  • laboratory blood tests will indicate underlying or excessive inflammation, the presence of rheumatoid factor;
  • bacteriological examination of the joint fluid to determine the causative agent of inflammation;
  • biopsy suspected tissue to look for malignancy;
  • X-rays of the hip from different sides will help identify signs of tissue deformity;
  • ultrasound examination of the joint;
  • doppler - an ultrasound examination to evaluate blood circulation;
  • CT scan.
degenerative changes and pain in the hip joint

Treatment of hip joint

If the hip is painful, treatment options may vary depending on the disease. It all depends on the pathology, the symptom of which is pain and discomfort. The complexity of the procedure is determined from medication, physiotherapeutic treatment, gymnastics and alternative medicine methods. Strictly following the recommendations and making all appointments leads to the normalization of the condition of the disease. Only a doctor should prescribe medication and treatment.

Drug treatment

  1. Anesthesia may be used for temporary pain relief. Pain relievers do not treat the cause of hip pain, but they do treat the symptom for a short time.
  2. With severe pain syndrome, if there is no effect from non-narcotic analgesics, a blockade is implemented.
  3. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are used as anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic. The drug is taken according to the instructions, do not exceed the dose so as not to cause side effects on the gastrointestinal tract.
  4. With severe inflammation that cannot be treated with non-hormonal drugs, glucocorticosteroids have a positive therapeutic effect. Steroid hormones provide anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antihistamine effects. They can be injected directly into the diseased joint during a puncture.
  5. Antibiotics are prescribed for purulent infections. Antibacterial agents have the effect of killing pathogens, destroying the cause of the disease. Simultaneously with antibiotics, the patient is prescribed probiotics to normalize the intestinal microflora.
  6. Muscle relaxants - help relax muscles, effectively eliminate spasms. The drug will reduce the sound to the point of immobility, reducing pelvic pain.
  7. Diuretics remove fluid, prevent swelling, and negatively affect the heart.
  8. Vitamin therapy is indicated to enhance immunity and improve general health. Biochemical processes ensure that vital bodily functions take place at an optimal rate.
  9. With degenerative processes that destroy joints, chondroprotectors are taken for a long time to prevent dystrophy and self-heal. These preparations contain chondroitin and glucosamine, the deficiency of which will create an imbalance in the joints. The funds are used in the form of tablets, and are also injected into the joint.
  10. Sedatives for imbalanced states of psyche. Nervous system disorders occur when a person has persistent, debilitating pain in the hip joint.
  11. Vasoprotective drugs to improve blood microcirculation. They improve metabolism in the walls of blood vessels, increase permeability.

Physiotherapy treatment of hip pain

Modern methods of adjuvant therapy help relieve pain in the affected area and help to quickly get rid of the pathology. According to modern medicine, there are many methods to eliminate pain in the hip joint.

Each method is assigned to:

  • improves blood circulation in the tissues of the hip joint;
  • reduce inflammation;
  • pain relief;
  • prevent the development of edema;
  • improves metabolism in cells;
  • initiates the self-healing process of tissues;
  • strengthen the immune system.

Laser therapy allows you to impact joints, impacting up to 9 cm deep. The laser beams aimed at the affected area warm the thickness of the tissue to the bone. The healing effect of nerve processes relieves pain. This method is designed to reduce inflammation, an additional analgesic effect.

Electrophoresis is the use of an electric current to go deep into tissues. Constant currents of low intensity and low voltage are prescribed along with anti-inflammatory or pain-relieving drugs, to deliver them into the body by a chemical reaction.

Magnetic therapy provides penetration of a magnetic pulse current to a depth of 7 to 12 cm. Treatment is carried out according to the course, the effect is achieved at the end of the course of treatment and lasts until the start of the next course of treatment. To improve the health of the hip joint, a device that relieves pain and activates the regeneration process is suitable.

Shockwave therapy involves short-term exposure to low-frequency sound pulses. It is used to eliminate inflammatory manifestations, providing a kind of high-frequency massage. Enhanced collagen synthesis begins, blood supply and tissue nutritional properties improve.

Orthopedic medical equipment

Reducing the manifestation of pain in the hip can be achieved with the help of orthopedic devices and rehabilitation. Modern developers of medical devices have taken care of the possible difficulties that patients will face.

For injuries affecting the femoral neck, complete immobilization is required for several months. In order not to impose a large plaster cast on the entire lower limb, there is an orthopedic method of rigid fixation - "derotation boot". The product is convenient for the patient to use in practice, is safe from a hypoallergenic point of view (plaster causes skin irritation and allergies), and is safe for others when caring for the victim's feet.

An anti-dandruff mattress is indispensable if a person has to lie down for many months. During the rehabilitation phase, when taking the first steps after an injury, they first use a walker to move independently. As more stability emerges, crutches are used and then a cane to assist in walking.

Balanitis causes women a lot of suffering due to intense pain in the pubic and pelvic area. Orthopedic pelvic girdle bras are used for pain relief, hip decompression, compression, and stiff rib support.

Choosing the right footwear is essential for proper hip relief. Spare cushion for everyday wear will relieve many problems not only with joints but also with spine.

Topical medications are great for pain relief and improving circulation. Plastic needles, when in close contact with the affected area, will first cause pain, then turn into pleasant warmth. In the acute phase, the session duration is 5 minutes to 6 times a day, with chronic pain - 15 minutes to 3 times a day.

hip pain relief exercises

Physical therapy

Therapeutic exercise classes have a special role to play. The more a joint is moved with a large dose, the more synovial fluid is produced, which is necessary for nutrition and tissue functioning. A set of exercises compiled by a medical instructor for each patient.

Exercises are performed during the remission phase, when there is no longer any pain. The correct technique of performing the movements is explained by the physiotherapist and reproduced under the supervision of a specialist. The movements should not be sharp and deep, the number of repetitions must be performed exactly according to the instructions.

Physical therapy exercises help improve blood flow, tone the thigh muscles, increase mobility in the pelvic joints, facilitate walking, and increase immunity. Each exercise must be coordinated with each other, incorrect movements cause the appearance of a painful attack, an increase in blood pressure, the appearance of microscopic spots that lead to inflammation.

Set of exercises to do at home:

  • In a prone position, bend your knees at a right angle, and at the same time pull your legs toward your chest, using your hands to create slight resistance;
  • without changing position, alternately pull the bent legs up, holding them for a few seconds;
  • lying on the right side, raise the left leg, bend the knee, repeat the movement with the other leg;
  • in the prone position, straighten the arms along the body, raise the straightened leg by 15 cm, hold for 5 seconds, perform the movements with two legs in turn;
  • Sit in a chair, raise your legs parallel to the floor, repeat the movement with each leg.

Hip joint surgery

When conservative treatment does not yield the desired results, surgery is performed to alleviate the patient's condition. There are several methods of surgical care:

  1. Endoscopic sterilization - clean the inner walls of the joint from necrotic particles, then rinse with a medicinal solution. Operations are performed in the operating room.
  2. Periarticular osteotomy - part of the bone in a broken joint is made to connect at a different angle to reduce the load on the diseased joint.
  3. Arthroscopy is the replacement of a diseased joint with an artificial joint; This method implies active rehabilitation activities after surgery.
folk remedies for hip pain


Safe and affordable recipes from healers with centuries of experience help relieve hip pain and speed recovery. Before use, you need to consult to rule out contraindications.

  1. Peel and mince one head of garlic, add the chopped celery root and a lemon with the zest. Mix all the ingredients and pour hot water, leave for a day in a cool place. Drink 1 spoon for thirty days.
  2. You can drink tea tree buds and birch tea every day to reduce inflammation. A teaspoon of linden flowers and birch buds are brewed with hot water. After 30 minutes, the broth is ready to use.
  3. Prepare herbal tea: combine St. John's wort, chrysanthemum and immortelle 1 tbsp each. Pour the composition with 500 ml of water and boil for 10 minutes. The agent should be taken 50 ml 3 times a day.
  4. Chop the radish, add a little honey and 30 ml of vodka. Apply the resulting mixture to the painful joint, fix it with cling film. Compressed head covered with blanket to keep warm all night.
  5. Mix mustard powder with honey and vegetable oil. Gauze, folded into several layers, is dipped into the composition and applied to the joint. Compression is held for no more than 60 minutes.
  6. Take cabbage leaves, wash and grease with honey, apply to the hip joints. Honey has antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties, and the cabbage will numb the affected joint.
  7. Crushed celandine leaves mixed with a small amount of olive oil. This mixture is infused for 7 days, after which it is applied to the affected area.
  8. It is necessary to grind and combine the hop and wort seeds of St. John, add kerosene to thicken. Rub into the painful joint twice a day.
  9. Mix red pepper, kerosene and vegetable oil and leave for 3 weeks. Use to apply no more than 1 time per day.

Prevention of hip joint

So that pain in the hip does not appear, simple recommendations will help:

  • lifestyle should be active with the periodic performance of simple exercises;
  • proper nutrition is the basis of health: exclude fatty, salty and smoked foods, alcohol, sausages, chocolate, confectionery;
  • do not overload joints with fatigue or heavy work;
  • use prophylactic bandages to relieve pelvic joint pain;
  • wear comfortable footwear that meets orthopedic standards;
  • If there are uncomfortable symptoms in the hip area, you need to see a doctor to be examined and prescribed effective treatment methods.