Osteoarthritis - the causes and treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee at all stages

knee joint disease

A disease such as osteoarthritis ranks first among other joint injuries in frequency of occurrence and the majority of patients are women. In the medical world, this localized dryness of the joints is called gonarthrosis disease. Let's take a look at why this disease develops, how it is manifested and treated.

Arthritis - what happens

To understand the nature and causes of arthritis, let's turn to anatomy. The knee joint is represented by a whole complex of structures - bones, tendons, ligaments, blood vessels and nerves. The upper contour of the joint is the distal end of the thigh, the lower contour is denoted by the upper part of the tibia, the front is limited by the kneecap and the posterior by the muscles.

The joint surfaces are lined with cartilage tissue, 5-6 mm thick. This structure performs the cushioning functions and reduces friction during flex-stretch movements. Cartilage is fed by the constant fluid produced by the synovial membrane, which lines the cartilage surface of the joint. When there is a nutritional deficiency, cartilage tissue becomes thinner, loses its elasticity, breaks and begins to collapse, losing its properties.

Cartilage is not functionally causing an increase in the load on bone tissue, which begins to deform and grow as a protruding and spiny as a defensive reaction. The degenerative process also affects the synovium, ligaments, and muscle fibers. All of this causes difficulty in joint movement and deviation of the axis of the limb from its correct position. This is how arthritis of the knee joint develops.

normal joint and cartilage disease

Joint pathological processes often arise due to a number of triggers leading to malnutrition of cartilage tissue, of which the following are:

  • congenital characteristics (joint dysplasia);
  • joint injury affecting the structure of bones, ligaments, muscles, cartilage tissue (bruising, dislocation, fracture, sprain);
  • pathology of the musculoskeletal system in which the load on the joint is not evenly distributed (scoliosis, scoliosis, flat feet);
  • previous knee surgeries (eg meniscus removal);
  • excessive load on sports or work-related lower extremities;
  • too low physical activity, motionlessness;
  • overweight;
  • Diseases
  • accompanied by prolonged muscle spasm of the muscles or blood vessels in the legs;
  • inflammatory processes in joint tissues (due to rheumatoid arthritis, arthritis with systemic lupus erythematosus, purulent infection);
  • violation of metabolic processes in the body, endocrine pathology;
  • body aging.

Arthritis of the knee - symptoms

The disease develops relatively slowly, gradually, at first almost unnoticed, then causes mild discomfort, and then leads to serious, sometimes disabled symptoms. Regardless of the cause of the fibrosis of the knee, taking into account the intensity of pathological processes in the tissue, there are three levels of gonarthrosis, each of which can be characterized by a characteristic clinical picture. special.

Arthritis of the knee differs from other joint diseases by the presence of specific types of pain:

  1. "Pain starts"occurs after a long period of rest at the beginning of exercise, then subsides or disappears after physical activity (afterquarter hour). This is due to the friction of joint surfaces, on which small pieces of bone and cartilage settle down. The movement of the joint leads to the expulsion of these destructive particles into the joint rings, and thus the pain is lessened.
  2. symptoms of knee arthritis
  3. "Joint block"is ​​a sudden onset of pain syndrome caused by a "mouse joint", which is a sharp piece of cartilage or bone. The detached piece is pinched between the joint surfaces or embedded in the soft tissues, causing unbearable pain and an inability to make even a small movement in the joint.

Level 1 gonadal fibroids

At the time of illness, the knee was no different from a healer, without defects. Gonarthrosis of the 1st degree knee joint is characterized by a decrease in blood circulation in the small internal blood vessels that nourish the cartilage, so it begins to dry and thinner. Accompanied by dull pain that recurs after physical activity, lifting weights or standing for a long time standing. In addition, there may be slight swelling in the kneecap area.

Secondary gonadal fibroids

As the disease progresses, the skeletal structures, synovial membranes are affected and the malnutrition of cartilage worsens. There is degeneration of the sheath, appearance of bone-forming cells. Grade 2 knee fibroids are characterized by increased symptoms, while pain occurs more often, lasts longer, and feels with negligible load. The patient may notice stiff movements, scratching appearances. Degenerative knee osteoarthritis is often manifested by frequent bumps and some deformity of the knee joint.

Tertiary gonadal fibroids

As knee joint disease develops, symptoms no longer doubt the diagnosis. At this stage, there is virtually no cartilage, ligament activity and muscle function are interrupted, joints and limbs are heavily deformed (the affected leg becomes an O-shaped or an X-shaped). Patients in constant pain, significantly limited mobility of the knee joint. The characteristics of gait are unstable, rolling, and patients need to use a cane or crutches.

Bilateral fibroids

Usually, the disease begins with one knee joint, but then comes to the second joint, due to increased load, which is associated with pathological processes. In some cases, synovial effusion is congenitally caused damage to both sides of the knee, after which the lesion develops symmetrically. In severe cases, bilateral gonarthrosis, symptoms primarily of interest to the elderly, can lead to a complete loss of mobility.

Arthritis - diagnosis

knee joint diagnosis

Patients who develop knee joint gonarthrosis are prescribed a series of tests to confirm the diagnosis, identify possible causes and severity of the lesion, which may include:

  • X-ray - shows the state of the meniscus and cartilage (along the width of the joint space), the presence or absence of bone growth, signs of bone destruction;
  • Ultrasound and MRI of the knee joint - to detect changes in soft tissue, intra-synovial fluid volume;
  • CT of the knee - for detailed study of changes in bone structure;
  • synovial fluid analysis - is prescribed for joint swelling to evaluate the development of inflammatory and dystrophic processes;
  • Arthroscopy
  • - a method of direct imaging examination in which a video camera is inserted into the joint cavity;
  • tests for blood and urine.

Arthritis of the knee - treatment

After the diagnostic measures, the doctor will tell you how to treat the knee fluid in each specific case. In any case, you need a long-term treatment adjustment, in full compliance with medical recommendations - this is the only way to achieve a positive result. The basic treatment principles include:

  • medical gymnastics;
  • massage;
  • physiotherapy techniques (UHF, electrophoresis, phonophoresis, diadynamic currents, magnetotherapy and laser);
  • drug therapy;
  • the use of orthopedic devices.

In addition, it may be necessary to treat the main medical conditions that cause fibrosis of the knee, normalize body weight and choose comfortable shoes. Patients should reasonably organize daily living habits, alternating physical activity and rest to reduce the load on joints. With obvious destructive changes, when conservative treatment is not effective, they have to resort to surgical intervention - knee dilatation.

How to reduce knee swelling in arthritis?

Since disfigurement is accompanied by recurrent knee swelling, it is important to learn how to manage this symptom, which makes it difficult for everyday life. The patient should firstly adjust the diet so that there is no water retention in the body. To do this, you need to limit your use of salt, sugar, semi-finished products, meat, and fatty foods.

To reduce edema, experts often recommend a special compress, which improves metabolism in the damage. It is necessary to moisten a gauze, fold several times, in Dimexide solution, dilute in half with water, squeeze gently and then apply to the painful knee. Cover with food wrap, let stand for 20-40 minutes. Therapies can be administered daily at night in a course of 10-15 sessions.

Ointment for arthritis of the knee

When knee arthritis is diagnosed, home treatment is carried out in most cases with the use of topical preparations in the form of ointments, gels and creams. These funds can be divided into several categories:

  • nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs - reduces inflammation, relieves pain;
  • warms - has analgesic effect by stimulating blood flow, improving cartilage and soft tissue nutrition;
  • chondroprotectors - restores cartilage tissue, activates the synthesis of synovial fluid, reduces the severity of symptoms.

Injections of the knee for arthritis treatment - drugs

In some cases, for example, if a joint effusion or severe pain is noted, a medication injected into the knee is prescribed to treat arthritis of the knee. Preparations in the joints of the following groups are used for injection:

  • corticosteroid;
  • hyaluronic acid preparations;
  • chondroprotectors;
  • Anesthetic
  • .

Gonarthrosis - tablets

Let's consider what medications might be prescribed for patients with osteoarthritis:

  • nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs;
  • chondroprotectors.

Osteoarthritis of the knee - treatment with folk remedies

If a diagnosis of nascent gonarthrosis is diagnosed, treatment can be complemented by unique, highly effective methods. For example, rubbing garlic improves blood circulation in surrounding tissues, normalizes cartilage nutrition, and relieves pain and inflammation.

Recipe for the remedy


  • garlic - 1 head;
  • Vegetable oil
  • - 200 mg.

Preparation and Application

  1. Chopped garlic, add oil.
  2. Place the tincture in a dark place for a week, shaking occasionally.
  3. Rub painful joints at night.

Osteoarthritis treatment for knee

gymnastics knee osteoarthritis

Degenerative knee therapy exercise is carried out after eliminating acute inflammation and eliminating severe pain. Exercise should be done regularly, with 30-40 minutes per day, dividing this time into 10 minutes. Properly selected exercises for osteoarthritis of the knee help restore blood circulation, strengthen muscles and ligaments, normalize the functions of the joint structure. In addition, walking, swimming, exercise on fixed bike, Pilates is very helpful for the sick.

Knee Support for Arthritis

Doctors recommend wearing a special knee pad for dry arthritis, which helps to ensure precise anatomical position, convenient travel and prevent swelling. Such products should be worn for 2 to 8 hours a day, before any physical activity. To know how to choose the right knee cushion for osteoarthritis you need to consult a specialist. Collapsible and hinged products, made from different materials, have different hardness levels.